Physical Chemistry 2
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The module, Physical Chemistry 2, focuses on six (6) areas of physical chemistry important to many aspects of our lives: solutions, colloids, phase equilibrium, electrochemistry, nuclear and quantum chemistry. Solutions are often necessary to facilitate many chemical reactions that are important to life, and/or for industrial processes; while colloids find extensive applications in various chemical industries (e.g., in pharmaceuticals, food and beverages, paints, adhesives, cosmetics, inks and many other industrial products). The applications of electrochemistry are wide spread with great economic significance. A number of real life processes also involve electrochemical reactions, the knowledge of which allows us to understand certain chemical and biological reactions related to them. Rusting of iron, bleaching of stains and photosynthesis are examples of such life processes. Many substances exist in more than one physical state, the most common being solid, liquid and gas phases. Each of the phases has significantly different physical properties, knowledge of which can be used for our benefit in different circumstances. As you may or may not know, although the nuclei of many isotopes are stable, some are however unstable and will undergo what is known as a nuclear reaction. Such reactions although useful in certain applications, like electricity power generation and nuclear medicine, yet nuclear reactions could also be harmful and destructive as with its application in producing the atomic bomb- a weapon of mass destruction. Elementary particles (photons, electrons, neutrons, protons, etc) configure with the forces of nature to make all forms of matter. Thus, the internal structures of these particles determine the chemical and physical behavior of matter and in turn, influence the nature of their interaction with radiation. The constructive interpretation of this kind of reaction using quantum chemical and mechanical principles provide useful framework for their application in the development of modern technologies. Solar energy panels, automatic doors, elevators, pocket calculator and intrusion alarms are some of the products of processes related to quantum mechanical ideas.