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Why are there wide variations among African countries in the adoption and integration of ICT as a game changer in the way we do business in all key sectors of socioeconomic life? Or in other words, why are some countries, sectors and institutions more successful in ICT integration than others? In the education sector, ICT integration in education in Africa is now a reality both in policy and practice. There is indeed a wide consensus that ICT can bring about educational development by addressing challenges in access to and quality of education. However, this statement is truer for policy than practice as most African countries have put in place ambitious national ICT policies in education but only a few have implementation frameworks in place and much fewer have translated them into concrete reforms in teaching and learning processes across the education systems. Indeed, out of the ten biggest educational laptop and tablet projects in the world listed by the World Bank , only Kenya and Rwanda have made the list. These two countries have both introduced tablets and laptops in schools at a large scale. Rwanda has rolled out its One-Laptop-Per-Child (OLPC) initiative geared towards equipping each of its 2.5 million school children with a laptop. By end of 2016, the project had reached 930 schools, reaching 267,000 school children (OLPC Rwanda) . Kenya also rolled out its OLPC policy that aims to provide 1.2 million computers when it is fully implemented. During the 2015-2016 school year, 400,000 first graders received laptops. The question, therefore, is why only these two countries have made the choice to use ICT to “revolutionize” their education systems? What socio-political and economic factors explain the prowess of these two countries? The answer it seems has to do with leadership at all levels.

dc.titleMaking it Happen: Leadership and Effective ICT Integration in teaching and learning processesen_US

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